Friday, September 14, 2018

Blackfoot Indian in Glacial National Park in 1916

Blackfoot Indian in Glacial National Park in 1916
                        Colorized photograph of a Blackfoot Indian in Glacial National Park in 1916

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Little Turtle: War Chief of the Miami Indians

Little Turtle: War Chief of the Miami Indians


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ME-CHE-CUN-NA-QUAH, 0R LITTLE TURTLE.
 Was the son of Aque-nac-que, the great war chief of the Twightwecs [Miamis] at the beginning of the eighteenth century, who was also the principal of the three Deputies who represented the Twightwee nation at the Treaty of Lancaster. Penn, on the 23d day of July, 1748. His mother was of the tribe of the Mohegans, and is reputed as having been a superior woman, transmitting many of her best qualities to her son. Aquenacque was of the Turtle branch of the Miamis, and lived in the Turtle Village on Eel River, some sixteen miles north west of Fort Wayne. 
    At this village Little Turtle was born. about the year 1747, and was the senior of his sister Algomaqua, wife of Capt. Holmes, by less than two years. He became chief at an early age, not on account of any right by inheritance, because the condition of the offspring follows the mother, and not the father, and his mother not standing in the line of descent from hereditary chiefs, the child stood in the same category, but because of his extraordinary talents and adaptedness for the position, which were noticeable from early boyhood. Upon the death of his father, therefore, he became the principal chief of the Miamis, by selection. iHis first eminent services were those of a warrior, in which he distinguished himself above all competitors. His courage and sagacity, in the estimation of his countrymen, were proverbial, and his example inspired others to unwanted achievements in council and the field. Neighboring consanguineous tribes, in their operations against the whites, drew courage from his presence. and achieved successes under his leadership. He was in himself a host on the battle field, and his counsel always commanded respect.
   At the time of St. Clair's expedition against the Wabash Indians, Little Turtle was the acknowledged leader, directing the movement of his people, which resulted in the defeat of the former. as he had previously done in the several actions in the campaign of Gen. Harmar. In comparison with Gen. St, Clair, as director of forces at Fort Recovery, his exhibitions of skill and tact in the management of the assault upon the white troops, were those of the more expert tactician. His loss in that engagement was light, while that- of Gen. St. Clair was heavy.
    “ Again, he commanded a body of Indians in November. 1792, who made a violent attack on a detachment of Kentucky volunteers under Maj. Adair, under the walls of Fort St. Clair, near Eaton, Ohio, but the savages were repulsed with loss. He was also at the action of Fort Recovery, in June, 1794. The campaign of Gen. Wayne, in August of the same year, proved too successful for the Turtle and superior to the combined force. Prior to the battle of Fort Miami. two miles below Maumee City, a council was held, when Little Turtle showed his sagacity and prudence by refusing to attack the forces of Gen. Wayne."
    Having satisfied himself of the impracticability of further opposition to the whites, Little Turtle lent his influence toward the maintenance of peace, and, in part consideration for his services in this respect, the American Government erected for him, at his village on Eel River, a comfortable house in which to live. "His habits were those of the whites, and he had black servants to attend to his household wants and duties. He was true to the interests of his race, and deplored their habits of drunkenness. In 1802 or 1803, he went before the Legislature of Kentucky, and, through his interpreter, made an appeal in person for a law preventing the sale of ardent spirits to the Indians. The like mission he performed before the Legislature of Ohio, but without success. He described the Indian traders to life, via: ‘Thcy stripped the poor Indian of skins, guns, blankets, everything, while his squaws ‘and children, dependent upon him,_ lay starving and shivering in his wigwam.‘
   In a communication dated at Fort Wayne, January 25, 1812, bearing his own signature, addressed to Gov. Harrison, he expressed himself as anxious to do all in his power to preserve peaceful relations between the white and red people. He was destined, however, to take no part in the pending conflict. “ He came to this city, in 1812, from his residence, to procure medical aid, and was under the treatment of the Unitid States Surgeon, and in the family of his brother-in law, Capt. Wells, at the Old Orchard——-or rathcr was cared for by Capt. W.'s family at his own tent, a few rods distant, preferring it to the more civilized mode of living ‘in doors.’ His disease was the gout, of which he died in the open air, at the place (Old Orchard), above described, July 14, 1812, having the universal respect of all who knr-w him. The Commandant of the fort at that time, Capt. Buy, the friend of Little Turtle, buried the remains of the chief with the honors of war. A writer says: ‘ His body was borne to the grave with the highest honors by his great enemy, the white man. The mufilcd drum, the solemn march, the funeral salute, announced that a great soldier had fallen, and even enemies paid the mournful tribute to his memory.’ "


    

Blackfoot Indian Woman

Blackfoot Indian Woman

The true identity of this Native American woman is unknown, some say she was Blackfeet and other say Cherokee.